Yaroslavl City

Yaroslavl

Coat of Arms of Yaroslavl (1995).png

 

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 VTB, Andropova, Yaroslavl.JPG
 
 
Church of Elijah the Prophet in Yaroslavl

Yaroslavl (Russian: Яросла́вль; IPA: [jɪrɐˈslavlʲ]) is a city and the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, located 250 kilometers (160 mi) northeast of Moscow. The historic part of the city, a World Heritage Site, is located at the confluence of theVolga and the Kotorosl Rivers. It is one of the Golden Ring cities, a group of historic cities northeast of Moscow that has played an important role in Russian history. Population: 591,486 (2010 Census preliminary results);[5] 613,088 (2002 Census);[6] 632,991 (1989 Census).[12]

Geography

Location

The city lies in the eastern portion of Yaroslavl Oblast. The nearest large towns are Tutayev (34 kilometers or 21 miles to the northwest), Gavrilov-Yam (37 kilometers or 23 miles to the south), and Nerekhta (47 kilometers or 29 miles to the southeast). The historic center of Yaroslavl lies to the north of the mouth of the Kotorosl River on the right bank of the larger Volga River. The city's entire urban area covers around 205 square kilometers (79 sq mi)[citation needed] and includes a number of territories south of the Kotorosl and on the left bank of the Volga. With over 600,000 residents, Yaroslavl is, by population, the largest town on the Volga until it reaches Nizhny Novgorod. It is a large transport node, and a great number of important national and regional roads, railways, and waterways pass through the city. In fact many of the roads that connect Yaroslavl to Moscow and beyond are two-lane highways.

Yaroslavl and its respective oblast are located in the central area of the East European Plain, which in areas to the northeast of Moscow is characterized by rolling hills and a generally uneven landscape; however, most of these hills are no larger than 200 meters (660 ft) in height. Typical for this region, the area in and around Yaroslavl is rich in mixed and coniferous forests. In addition to these, there are also large areas of swampland.


Climate

A completely frozen Volga River in Yaroslavl (winter 2006)

Yaroslavl and its local area has a typical temperate continental climate, in comparison to central and western Europe. This makes for a climate with more snowy, colder, but dry winters, and typically temperate, warm summers.

The winter weather in Yaroslavl begins in about November and usually goes on for five months, into spring. The coldest month of the year is typically January with an average daily temperature of just −8.2 °C (17.2 °F). However, at this time it is not uncommon for temperatures to drop below −20 °C (−4 °F). In some cases (for example, most recently in January 2006[13]), temperatures of −35 to −40 °C (-31 to -40 °F) can be experienced. On the other hand, Yaroslavl can also experience positive temperatures during this time of the year (for example, in 1932, when a thaw lasted for seventeen days of January[14]). Typically the Volga freezes over during the winter. Snow cover is usually 35–50-centimeter thick (14–20 in), but can in some cases be up to 70 centimeters (28 in) in depth. The springtime months are best characterized by a typical lack of precipitation. From the end of March into April, there is often a thaw, and much of the ice and snow melts to reveal foliage underneath. It is not uncommon for temperatures in April to reach +20 °C(68 °F). Summers in Yaroslavl are typically wet with some heavy rainstorms. The summer often reaches its hottest point during the months of June/July, with a mean daily temperature of +23.3 °C (73.94 °F) and often days over +30 °C (86 °F). From September begins the two-month-long fall, which is characterized by relatively high humidity, fewer sunny days, and unpredictable temperatures (it is possible to first see ground frost in September). The average amount of precipitation during a year is 591 millimeters (23.3 in), of which 84 millimeters or 3.3 inches (the most precipitation in one month) falls in July. The very least precipitation occurs in winter and spring (particularly in February and March).

The following figures for precipitation and temperature values in Yaroslavl have been collated on the basis of data from the years 1961–1990.

[hide]Climate data for Yaroslavl
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F) −8.2
(17.2)
−5.8
(21.6)
0.1
(32.2)
9.0
(48.2)
17.8
(64.0)
21.4
(70.5)
23.3
(73.9)
21.5
(70.7)
14.9
(58.8)
7.2
(45.0)
−0.2
(31.6)
−5.2
(22.6)
8
(46)
Average low °C (°F) −15.8
(3.6)
−14.2
(6.4)
−8.6
(16.5)
0.0
(32.0)
6.2
(43.2)
10.1
(50.2)
12.5
(54.5)
10.7
(51.3)
5.9
(42.6)
0.9
(33.6)
−5.2
(22.6)
−11.6
(11.1)
−0.8
(30.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 37
(1.46)
27
(1.06)
26
(1.02)
40
(1.57)
52
(2.05)
65
(2.56)
84
(3.31)
64
(2.52)
55
(2.17)
52
(2.05)
46
(1.81)
43
(1.69)
591
(23.27)
Source: [15]


History

Preceded by Viking sites such as Timerevo from the 8th or 9th centuries, the city of Yaroslavl is said to have been founded in 1010 as an outpost of the Principality of Rostov Veliky, and was first mentioned in 1071.[citation needed] Capital of an independent Principality of Yaroslavl from 1218, it was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1463. In the 17th century, it was Russia's second largest city, and for a time (during the Polish occupation of Moscow in 1612), the country's de facto capital. Today, Yaroslavl is an important industrial center (petrochemical plant, tire manufacturing plant, diesel engines plant and many others] and lies at the intersection of several major highways, railways, andwaterways.


Early Yaroslavl

The oldest settlement in the city is to be found on the left bank of the Volga River in front of the Strelka (a small cape at the confluence of the Volga and Kotorosl) and belongs to the 5th–3rd millennium BCE. In the 9th century the so-called Russian Khanate formed, near Yaroslavl, a large Scandinavian-Slavic settlement, known nowadays for a range of burial mounds, in Timerevo. When excavations were carried out a large number of artifacts including Scandinavian weapons with runic inscriptions, chess pieces and the largest collection of Arabian coins (treasure) in northern Europe, (the earliest were struck in the first Idrisid) were found.[16][17] In Timerevo the fourth set of Scandinavian brooches ever found in Russia was discovered.[18] Apparently, this "proto-Yaroslavl" was a major center for the Volga trade route.[19] Soon after the founding of Yaroslavl, the settlement went into decline, probably in connection with the termination of the operation of the Volga trade route.[20] Upstream of the Volga River, just outside the boundaries of the modern city, archaeologists have studied a large necropolis with a predominance of ordinary graves of the Finno-Ugric-type.[21]

[edit]Foundation of the city

Historical Center of the City of Yaroslavl *
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Jaroslavl from Kremlin.jpg
Country Flag of Russia.svg Russian Federation
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iv
Reference 1170
Region ** Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 2005 (29th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List
** Region as classified by UNESCO

If taken by its date of first foundation, Yaroslavl is the oldest of all the currently existing towns on the Volga.[22][23] Yaroslavl was founded by a prince of Kievan Rus Yaroslav the Wise during the period of his ruling the Principality of Rostov (988—1010) when he stepped ashore for the first time near the area now known as 'Strelka', a favorite contemporary park. On this spot which was well protected from attack by the high, steep banks of the Volga, Kotorosl and Medveditsa Rivers, Yaroslavl and his men began to set about building the first Yaroslavl Kremlin. The first recorded event of Yaroslavl occurred as a result of famine, it was recorded as the Rostov Uprising of 1071. The name of the city is traditionally linked to that of its founder: Yaroslav.

Yaroslav the Wise stands over the body of the bear which he, according to legend, killed before founding the city

By the 12th century, the Petropavlovsky and Spasso-Preobrazhensky monasteries of Yaroslavl had already come into existence, however at that time they were located well beyond the city limits. During the first two centuries of its existence Yaroslavl remained a minor fortified city of the Rostov-Suzdal lands.

From the beginning of the thirteenth century, Yaroslavl found itself under the lordship ofKonstantin and became one of his primary residences. As, just before his death in 1218, Konstantin broke up his land between his various sons, his second son Vsevolod came into possession of the Yaroslavl land, which he from thence onwards ruled as the Principality of Yaroslavl. This principality, of which Yaroslavl became the capital included a number of territories ro the north and existed up until its eventual absorption into the Principality of Moscow in 1463.

During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, Yaroslavl was a city largely built from wood, as a result of which it often found itself plagued by disastrous fires, which in some cases almost destroyed the entire city, a good example of which would be that which took place just before the transfer of power in the city to Vsevolod on 1221. Another constant source of danger for the city and for the many Russian princes of the time came from the East and the many foreign invaders, (usually from the Mongol Horde. A particularly successful attack took place in 1257, when troops from the Golden Horde under Möngke Khan overran the Principality of Yaroslavl and murdered both the larger population of the area and the prince's close family.[24] On the site of that unfortunate event, on the right bank of the Kotorosl, there is now a memorial church and cross.

In 1293 and 1322 there were further disastrous attacks on Yaroslavl launched by the Golden Horde, and in 1278 and 1364 the Plague struck.[25] On many an occasion Yaroslavl had to be completely rebuilt, both in terms of residential buildings which no longer exist, to those larger more permanent structures which remain to this day, such as the Spasso-Preobrazhensky Monastery and 1314 Monastery of Maria of Tolga, which is located on the left bank of the Volga. In 1463 the Principality of Yaroslavl was finally absorbed into the Grand-duchy of Moscow, with the area it once covered becoming an oblast within the new structure of the Muscovite state. From this point onwards the history of the city and its lands became completely inseparable from that of Moscow and eventually Russia.

[edit]16th century and the Time of Troubles

Alexey Bogolyubov. 'A Crucession in Yaroslavl', painted in 1863

Even in the 16th century Yaroslavl continued to suffer from large scale fires and the damage they did to the city's developing economy and infrastructure. As a result the age old tradition of building in wood was abandoned and a new city built of stone began to appear; unfortunately this meant that very little of the Yaroslavl of the Middle Ages remained unchanged. The most prominent example of this is the Spaso-Preobrazhensky monastery which was destroyed in 1501 and rebuilt in just under a few years. Resultantly the monastery's cathedral was built up in 1506-1516, a building which remains, to this day, the oldest unchanged building in the city. By the middle of the sixteenth century a number of other building works had been completed in the monastery, also, other than this, for the first time in its history, Yaroslavl gained a stone-built wall with a number of large watch towers which were intended to be used to spot attackers from miles away. During the reign of Ivan the Terrible, when all the Russian principalities gave up their traditional rights and submitted to theTsardom of Russia, the two large monasteries of Yaroslavl profited very much from rich gifts from the court of the Tsar, largely because Ivan IV made a number of pilgrimages to Yaroslavl over the course of his life.[26]

New building works were also made affordable by a large upswing in Yaroslavl's economic fortunes which the city experienced in the middle part of the 16th century. The main reason for this largely unexpected improvement in Yaroslavl's fortunes came largely from the city's position on the Volga which allowed trade to be brought from and to Moscow via the river, linking the new Russian capital with the port of Archangelsk darstellte. Resultantly Yaroslavl became an important place for the conduct of international trade and a number of shipping berths and warehouses grew up around the city for the use of merchants, especially those from England and Germany.

Plan of the Spasso-Preobrazhensky monastery, Beginning of 17th century

The economic prosperity of Yaroslavl during the late 16th century was put to an end by the unsteady years of troubles which lasted from around 1598 until 1613. Like most Russian cities of the time, Yaroslavl was devastated by famine and became a potential target city for Polish-Lithuanian troops acting in their capacity as 'interventionists' in the troubled Russian state. The Polish-Lithuanian-supportedpretender to the Russian throne captured Karachev, Bryansk, and other towns, was reinforced by the Poles, and in the spring of 1608 advanced upon Moscow, routing the army of Tsar Vasily Shuisky at Bolkhov. Promises of the wholesale confiscation of the estates of the boyars drew many common people to his side. The village of Tushino, twelve versts from the capital, was converted into an armed camp where Dmitry gathered his army. Resultantly this pretender won the appreciation of the powers in Yaroslavl and thus their loyalty. However, despite having promised to pay a higher rate of taxes and dues to the Polish occupiers, Yaroslavl was on numerous occasions plundered by the forces of the pretender Dmitry. This led to a number of popular uprisings. Thus in early 1609 a Russian peasant army was formed to free as many of the Volga's cities as possible, including, amongst others, Vologda and Yaroslavl.

Minin and Pozharsky, whilst on their way to relieve Moscow, made Yaroslavl their base and thus de-facto capital of Russia for two months in 1612

In May 1609, another Polish army under the command of Aleksander Józef Lisowski tried to bring the strategically important city of Yaroslavl under the power of the invaders. However, the majority of the city's citizens had withdrawn into the tradition center of the city and found refuge behind the protective earthen wall, thus denying the Poles entry without a fight. Yet even when Litowski successfully (through deceit) managed to get behind this wall, he found that the citizens of Yaroslavl had retreated into their ancient wooden Kremlin and the two stone-built monasteries. The ensuing siege of Yaroslavl lasted until 22 May, but despite constant attempts to take the city, the Poles had to return to Moscow having not fulfilled their duty to bring Yaroslavl under direct control of their command.

Despite their failure at Yaroslavl, Polish forces remained in control of Moscow, and despite an attempt in 1610 by the Russian peasants' army to unseat the Poles from the Moscow Kremlin, little was accomplished and their seemed no end in sight for the occupation of the Russian tsardom. One year later however Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky founded yet another peasants' army in Nizhny Novgorod, that on the way to Moscow, found itself stationed in Yaroslavl for many months. In this time from April to June 1612 Yaroslavl became the de-facto capital of the Russian state, since in this place the most important matters of state were settled until the eventual lieration of Moscow came. After its time in Yaroslavl the peasants' army moved on towards Moscow, and with thanks to the rest and help they had received voluntarily from the people of Yaroslavl, the army was able to liberate Moscow and finally put an end to the Polish-Lithuanian 'intervention' in the affairs of the Russian state.

[edit]Yaroslavl as a trading post and government center

Yaroslavl's Volkov Square as it would have appeared before the reconstruction of the Volkov Theater in the early 1900s

With the general economic revival of the Russian state's economy after the end of the Troubles, Yaroslavl continued to be an important trading post and retained its place on the route of numerous traditional trading routes from the West to East and vice versa. By way of theVolga trade was carried out with the lands of the Orient, and it was not unheard of to see ships from India and China bringing goods to Europe by way of Yaroslavl. The northern trade route through the city ran to the port of Arkhangelsk in Russia's far north, whilst other Eastern trade lines ran East over the Urals to Siberia. The town benefited very much from its geographical location over the years and the wealth which business produced for the town helped ensure its prosperous future. In fact, in the 17th century a number of early industrial concerns were set up in the city, including a number of leather-working shops, in which around 700 people eventually came to work. Other trades for which Yaroslavl became a center over the years were in the production of textiles, cosmetics (fragrances) and silver work.

As a result of the prosperity enjoyed by the city, Yaroslavl saw a huge expansion in the size of its population over the course of the 17th century, and by the end of this century, the town had a population of around 15,000 people,[27] making it the second largest city of the Russian Tsardom after Moscow. This period was also particularly important for the urban development of the city, because during the 17th century a multitude of stone-walled churches were built in the city; today these churches still form a major part of the old town's city center. Work on most of these churches was begun with funds gifted to the city by rich local merchants, and thus they had a large say in what form the buildings would eventually take.

The living quarters and work place for employees of Yaroslavl's first major industrial enterprise, the city's textiles plant

In 1658, Yaroslavl endured a disastrous fire which destroyed most of the city's few remaining wooden buildings, including the ancient Kremlin.[28] From this point onwards the city began to develop in the same way as it has done up to this very day, as a city built almost exclusively out of brick and mortar.

At the beginning of the 18th century Yaroslavl finally began to transform itself from a trading post into a major industrial town; this largely came about because with the foundation by Peter the Great of Saint Petersburg in 1703, the importance of Arkhangelsk as a port on theNorthern Ocean was drastically decreased, and the amount of trade being channeled through the city for export fell accordingly. Luckily, the wealth which Yaroslavl had amassed over its many years as an important trading post allowed it to invest great amounts of money into the development of the city's new industrial base, and thus make the city very attractive to new investors. In 1772 the textiles factory of Ivan Tames opened on the right bank of the Kotorosl. This plant was not only Yaroslavl's first major industrial enterprise, but also one of Russia's largest textiles producers. Amazingly this famous establishment still exists today under the name 'Textile factory 'Krasny Perekop' (russ. Красный Перекоп). In addition to the rise in textile manufacturing, Yaroslavl's traditional position as a center for skilled leatherwork remained unchanged.

Volga-Promenade with decorative Pavilion. A postcard from 1915.

In the 1770s, as a result of the city's economic development and ever rising population, the city became a major provincial center, thus in the course of the Russian Empire's administrative reforms under Catherine the Great Yaroslavl, in 1777, became the center of its owngovernorate, and in 1778 received its own grant of arms. In 1796, the city finally became the seat of one of the Empire's new governorates. As an administrative center of the highest order, Yaroslavl, in 1778, received its own specially drawn out plan for urban development. This led to another wave of building works in the city, the results of which are still visible in the city today. With the Ilyanskaya Square and Church of Elijah the Prophet at its center, the new plan called for the development of a network of long boulevards and streets which would be bordered by large classical style buildings and numerous city parks. A prominent example of this later development is the former House of Charity (built in 1786), which is now one of the buildings of the city's 'Demidov' State University.

For Yaroslavl the 19th meant a period of intensive building work, infrastructural development and industrialization. In 1803 the 'School of Higher Sciences' was opened, this was the city's first educational institute and is recognized as the forerunner to the city's current state university. In 1812 the first permanent bridge (built near the Transfiguration Monastery) over the Kotorosl was finished, and by 1820 the city's Volga embankment was stabilized and turned into a large shaded promenade. Also, other major classicist building works were started, amongst which was the Governor's House (1821–1823) (today location of the city's gallery). In 1860 Yaroslavl was finally connected, through Moscow, via telegraph to the other major cities of Russia, and this was then soon followed, in 1870, by the building of Yaroslavl's first railway station and inauguration of Yaroslavl-Moscow railway. In 1873 the city gained a municipal waterworks and by 1900 an electrified tramway. Just before the end fo the 19th century in 1897, Yaroslavl had a recorded population of around 71,600 people.[29]

[edit]The 20th century and the millennium of Yaroslavl

Nicholas II in Yaroslavl for the 300th anniversary of the House of Romanov.

Right up until the beginning of the First World War Yaroslavl remained a large industrial town with a well-developed municipal infrastructure. However, the effects of the 1917 October Revolution were wide-reaching, and after the Russian Civil War of 1917-1920 the city's economy suffered rather drastically; this led to a significant contraction on the city's population. The Yaroslavl Rebellion, which lasted from 6 to 21 July 1918 had particularly grave consequences. In this event a group of conservative activists tried to remove the newly-installed Bolshevik municipal authorities through an armed intervention. The rebels managed to secure a number of large parts of the city, however this led only to an assault by the Red Army which saw the city surrounded, cut off from supplies and bombarded day and night with artillery and air forces. The rebellion was eventually put down, and ended with official figures putting the number of deaths amongst the city's residents at about 600, in addition to which around 2,000 of the city's buildings were either destroyed or badly damaged.[30]

Yaroslavl's Ascension Church, which was badly damaged during the Yaroslavl uprising

The economy of Yaroslavl took part in the early Soviet Union's program of accelerated industrialization. Milestones for this period include the opening of the city's first municipal power plant in 1926, the beginning of Synthetic rubber mass production in factory SK-1, the reestablishment of domestic production facilities for the production of automobile and aircraft tires in the 1928-founded Yaroslavl Tyre Factory, and the opening of therubber-asbestos combined works in 1933. In addition to all this the Yaroslavl Automobile Works (founded 1916) continued to produce vehicles, including a number for the municipal transport administration of Moscow, well into the 1930s.

During the years of the Second World War Yaroslavl managed to escape the prospect of a German occupation of the city, since the Wehrmachtdid not manage to break through the Soviet defense lines surrounding Moscow. However, due to its location as a large transportation hub, and since the 1913-built railway bridge over the Volga in Yaroslavl was the only point at which to cross the river, the city became a major target for air raids during 1942-1943. During the one of the heaviest of all these raids on 11 June 1943 over 120of the city's inhabitants were killed, whilst another 150 or so were badly injured. In addition to this around 200 buildings (including one of the tire factory's main workshops) were completely destroyed.[31] Most of the city's industry, including the automobile, tyre and textile plants, were converted, during the war, to produce armament and equipment for the Soviet Red Army. Overall about 200,000 people from the Yaroslavl area died on the fronts during World War II. This sacrifice is today memorialized through a monument and eternal flame which was opened near the mouth of the Kotorosl River in 1968.

Red Square with its Lenin monument in Soviet-era Yaroslavl. Major building and infrastructure projects, as well as party slogans, such as that in this photo - 'Communism grows ever stronger upon the earth', were very characteristic of the urban development communism brought to the city

During the Blockade of Leningrad a great number of children, who were brought over the frozen Lake Ladoga(the so-called Road of life) were evacuated to a safer new life in Yaroslavl. Yaroslavl was at the time also home to a camp for military prisoners of war 'Camp No. 276' for German soldiers imprisoned for taking part in hostilities against the Soviet Union.[32]

In the second half of the century the industrialization and development of the city took the foremost position in Yaroslavl's history. In 1961, an oil refinery was opened and from the 1960s a large number of residential districts began to spring up all over the city, including, for the first time in the city's history, on the left bank of the Volga, where development had traditionally not taken place. This left-bank development was further encouraged by the construction, in 1965, of a new Volga crossing for automobiles. In 1968 the city's population finally rose, for the first time, to over half a million inhabitants; it has been growing, almost constantly, ever since.[29]

A Russian postage stamp celebrating the millennium of Yaroslavl

In July 2005 Yaroslavl's historic city center was inscribed onto the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The support for this was in line with the list's second (a unique example of the combining of cultural and architectural styles between Western Europe and the Russian Empire) and fourth (a unique example of urban development influenced by the Municipal Planning Reform in Russia of Empress Catherine the Great 1763-1830).[33] In the same year the preparations for the celebration of the millennium of Yaroslavl's foundation began; this was finally celebrated on the second weekend in September 2010. Under the conditions of the preparations for the city's 1000th year anniversary the municipal authorities invested a great deal of money into the development of the city's road and rail infrastructure, much of the funds for which were granted by the federal government in Moscow.[34]Included in these preparations was the opening of a new bridge (in 2006) over the Volga; this is now known as the Jubilee Bridge. Also in August 2008 the newly built Yaroslavl Zoo was opened; this was then expanded further in 2010.

In 2009, Yaroslavl became a meeting place for global policy debates within the International Conference 'The Modern State and Global Security'. AKA Yaroslavl Global Policy Forum. The conference in Yaroslavl gathered the most authoritative representatives of political science, business community as well as the representatives of the governments of a number of different states. Dmitry Medvedev, President of the Russian Federation, José Luis Zapatero, Prime Minister of Spain, Francois Fillon, Prime Minister of France were all participants at the Conference.

In 2010, Russian officials gathered together international authorities in Yaroslavl to discuss the challenges facing the modern state at the Global Policy Forum for 'The Modern State: Standards of Democracy and Criteria of Efficiency'. In 2011 Yaroslavl will bring together participants from all over the world to discuss the 2011 agenda: 'The modern state in the age of social diversity'.

On September 7, 2011, most of the members of the city's KHL (ice hockey) team, Lokomotiv Yaroslavl, perished in an air crash on takeoff from Yaroslavl's Tunoshna Airport.

[edit]Symbols

Yaroslavl currently has a municipal coat of arms and flag which are both made up of two heraldic symbols. Both of these items are intrinsically linked with the legend surrounding the foundation of the city; the bear and halberd.

Yaroslavl's founder's monument and coat of arms are depicted on the front of the 1000 rouble note.
Whilst the city's St. John the Baptist Church is on the reverse.
First municipal coat of arms from 1778

The first coat of arms of Yaroslavl[35] was officially granted on 31 August 1778. At that time it was made up of a silver field upon which the form of a bear was placed, and which, with its left forepaw held a golden halberd. In 1856 the coat of arms was modified slightly, which left the traditional image of the halberd-carrying bear as it was, but added an imperial crown surmounted on top of the shield. In addition to his a sprig of golden oak leaves was added to surround the shield, intertwined with the blue ribbon of the Order of Saint Andrew. This form of the coat of arms was then left unaltered until 1918, just after the Bolsheviks came to power as a result of the October Revolution. After the abolition of the tsarist municipal and provincial symbols by the newly installed Soviet administration in Yaroslavl, the city received no new official symbols, and thus the situation remained until the end of the twentieth century. The third and current version of the city's coat of arms was adopted on 23 August 1995 by the municipal council. The coloring and form of the arms are taken from those of 1856, however the sprig of oak and ribbon of St Andrew were removed and have, as of yet, not been reintroduced to the symbols of the city. In addition to this, the imperial crown which previously surmounted the whole design has been replaced, in the current version by the Cap of Monomakh – a symbol of the Russian autocracy and an otherwise powerful symbol of the Russian state.

The municipal flag or banner of Yaroslavl[36] was adopted on 22 May 1996. It is a simple design which simply depicts the coat of arms of the city (1995 version), which must take up at least one third of the flag's entire size, upon a light blue background. The whole flag is rectangular in shape.

[edit]Administrative and municipal status

Administratively, it is incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Yaroslavl—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] Municipally, the city of oblast significance of Yaroslavl is incorporated as Yaroslavl Urban Okrug.[2]

[edit]City divisions

Yaroslavl is divided into six city districts. The center is located on the northern bank of the Kotorosl River, where it converges with the Volga on the Volga's western bank. The center is the economic and political hub of the city. It is also the oldest district in the city and where it was first settled. The center contains the majority of landmarks and attractions in the city, including the Volkov Theater, the Church of Elijah the Prophet, the football stadium,and the Volga embankment and the monastery, which is often mistakenly called the kremlin. Pyatyorka is located north of the center but is still under its administrative jurisdiction. Pyatyorka is largely a residential region with very few notable sites, aside from a few houses of culture.

Across the Kotorosl lie Frunzensky and Krasnoperekopsky City Districts, which are divided by Moskovsky Avenue. Frunzensky is a relatively new district, constructed in the post-war era. Most of the buildings are of typical grey Soviet construction. Frunzensky City District is divided into three microdistricts: Suzdalka, Dyadkovo, and Lipovaya Gora.

St. John the Baptist Church, dating from the 1680s, is the acme of traditional Russian architecture

Krasnoperekopsky City District is one of the oldest parts in Yaroslavl. Before the 1917 Revolution, it was home to the bulk of Yaroslavl's industry, and a good deal of industry remains today. Krasnoperekopsky City District is divided into two microdistricts, one of which is Neftestroy, an up-and-coming region, named for its proximity to Yaroslavl's oil refinery. Neftestroy is home to the newly built hockey arena, and there were plans to build an indoor football stadium there by the millennial anniversary of Yaroslavl's founding in 2010. On the other side of the railway tracks that run through Krasnopereposky City District lies the Perekop proper. Today, Perekop is known as one of the most dangerous areas of Yaroslavl. It consists largely of run-down, pre-Soviet izbas and decaying factory buildings. There are plans to pump life into this depressed district, but at the time of writing, it remains extremely impoverished and dangerous. Much of Yaroslavl's mafia grew out of Perekop. However, Perekop offers some of Yaroslavl's most beautiful parks and churches, most notably the Church of Saint John the Baptist, which is located next to a paint factory on the Kotorosl embankment; and Peter and Paul's Cathedral, a Protestant-style Orthodox church.

The 17th-century churches of Yaroslavl are renowned for their magisterial proportions and elaborate frescoes.
The Assumption Cathedral, originally built in stone in the early 1210s, was rebuilt in its current form in 2010.

North of the center there is a small industrial region, which is home to the tire factory, the engine plant, as well as many other smaller factories. Further north on the Western bank liesDzerzhinsky City District, named after "Iron" Felix Dzerzhinsky, founder of the Cheka, the Soviet secret police. Dzerzhinsky City District's core microdistrict is Bragino, named after a small village that was eventually consumed by Yaroslavl's post-war expansion. Bragino is the largest area in Yaroslavl in terms of population, but like Frunzensky City District, it is largely a residential area, mostly consisting of middle- to lower-middle income families.

On the other bank of the Volga lies Zavolzhsky City District. This city district was Yaroslavl's quietest and most-rural area, but now it is one of the most dynamic parts of the city with expansive new buildings with big hypermarkets, such as "Globus" and "Real". Birch and evergreen forests separate the apartment blocks.

[edit]Administration

The seat of the municipal administration and mayor of Yaroslavl

The local government of Yaroslavl consists of the Mayoralty, the head of which is the mayor, and the Municipal Council, the members of which may cast votes at council meetings.

The mayoralty[37] plays the role of the executive in the city's municipal administration. Above all comes the mayor, who is elected, by the city's electorate, for four years in a direct election.[38] Sine December 1991 this office has been held by Viktor Volontshunas, a member of the United Russia party. Volonchunas was first elected under Yeltsin and since then has been reelected to the position of mayor on four separate occasions. There are eight deputy mayors, each of which is responsible for a certain particular part of the city's public policy. Within each policy area there are about five or six operations' departments which are all subordinated to their policy area's deputy. For example, under the deputy's office for social policy and culture there are six departments: Social Insurance and Employment, Physical fitness and Sport,Youth policy, Education, Health policy, and Culture policy.

The Municipal Council[39] of the city makes up the administration's legislative branch, thus effectively making it a city 'parliament' orduma. The municipal council is made up of 36 elected members, who are each elected to represent a certain district of the city for a four year term. In the regular meetings of the municipal council, problems facing the city are discussed, and annually the city's budget is drawn up. The council also has a court of audit and four standing commissions[40] which play an important role in controlling the finances and trading practices of the city and its merchants.

Each of the city's six districts has its own district administration, all of which are ultimately part of the city's mayoralty. In addition to the city's own authorities, the authorities and legislature of the Yaroslavl Oblast can also be found in the city.

[edit]Sightseeing and culture

Yaroslavl is one of the eight city's of Russia's Golden Ring, a group of touristic, historic towns around Moscow. Yaroslavl is situated on the north-eastern side of this 'ring' and is the largest city in its chain. Whilst the city is best known for its architectural merits, it also has a relatively large repertoire of cultural attractions.

A panoramic view of the area surrounding the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Monastery (central Yaroslavl)
Many Orthodox shrines and monasteries lie along the banks of the Volga.
Church of Elijah the Prophet in Yaroslavl

[edit]Architecture

Despite the effects of the Russian Civil War and a number of air-raids during the Second World War, the city of Yaroslavl has managed to retain a great deal of its 17th, 18th and 19th century urban substance. This has helped make the city recognizable as a monument to the architectural development and style of the Russian Tsardom. The center of the city, which covers an area of around 600 hectares has around 140 individual federally-protected architectural monuments.[41] Since 2005, this ensemble, along with the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Monastery has been included on the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Despite all this, there are a number of buildings of architectural merit which are located outside of the city center.

[edit]Old town

The old town is effectively triangular in shape; this triangle is formed by the natural border provided to the south and east by the Kotorosl andVolga rivers, and on the land side by the geometric pattern of the street plan, which dates from the 18th and 19th centuries.

Constructed in 1506–1516 on the foundations of the original edifice dating back to 1216–1224. In the 16th century, the first stone wall is built around the monastery. It is from this monastery that an army of volunteers led by Minin and Prince Pozharsky set out to liberate Moscow from Polish invaders. In 1787, the monastery was closed and converted into a residence of the Yaroslavl and Rostov bishops. At that time, monastery buildings began to be reconstructed. New cells and the prior's chambers were built.

The belfry tower of the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Monastery

The most well-known building in the city is the 'Spaso-Preobrazhensky' ('Transfiguration of the Savior') Cathedral of the Spassky (St Savior) Monastery [42] (russ. Спасо-Преображенский монастырь). This monastery was originally founded in the 12th century and thus it, and its cathedral, are the oldest buildings in the city. The Transfiguration Cathedral itself, built in the year 1516, is the oldest detached building standing in the city, (Спасо-Преображенский собор). Typical for a Russian monastery of the Middle Ages, the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Monastery in Yaroslavl was not built to be no more than a place of worship, but also to be a citadel and kremlin in case, in times of war, there was a need for such a facility. This is still visible today as the monastery is surrounded by a thick 16th century, white-painted wall, complete with watchtowers and embattlements. Within these walls stand the magisterial churches, which, with their asymmetrically-ordered towers and beautifully decorated interiors, make for wonderful examples of traditional Russian sacral architecture. In addition to this there is a gatehouse church, with which the monastery's dungeons and treasury were connected. The monastery has long had a place in the history of Yaroslavl and continues, albeit nowadays as a museum, to play a significant role in the life of the city. It was largely thanks to the impregnability of the monastery that, during the time of the Troubles, the Russian peasants' army was able to defend the city and then go on to liberate Moscow from its Polish-Lithuanian occupiers. At the end of the 18th century, the oldest known text of the Tale of Igor's Campaign, the most renknowned work of Russian-language literature from the Middle Ages, was found in the library of the SPaso-Preobrazhensky Monastery. This masterpiece is now on display as a permanent exhibition within the monastery, along with other works of the age and an exhibition showing the conditions an author of the era would have lived in.

Volga Tower

The often hectic square which is to be found just beyond the north gate of the monastery (main gate), is called Bogolavyenskaya Square (Epiphany Square) (Богоявленская площадь). This name comes from the nearbyEpiphany Church (Богоявленская церковь) which is seated at the south end of the square, near the bank of the Kotorosl. This church, with its five domes, and traditional Russian sacral architecture, is a classic example of a medieval Russian church. However, interestingly, the church has a separate clock-tower which was built in accordance with the sacral-architectural style of Muscovy in the years 1684–1693; this all goes to make the church one of the most noticeable examples of 17th century architecture in the city. In addition to this, the beautiful fresco-work inside the church was carried out by local artists during the building of the church, and has remained, almost unchanged, to this day.

The two streets which lead off Bogolavyenskaya Square to the north-west are very good examples of the type of urban planning which was formulated for Yaroslavl in the 18th and 19th centuries. They were laid out in 1820–1821 as new boulevards to run around the historic city center and were built on terrain previously occupied by a number of earthen and wooden fortifications which dated from the 16th century. There was also a small defensive moat in this area, and after the infilling of the moat and removal of all other fortifications, the defensive uses of the Spaso-Preobrazhensky monastery largely disappeared. This was, in general, not considered to be a great loss, as the requirement for such earth-works in order to maintain defensive readiness had long since been surpassed by other methods of securing a city by the point of their removal. The two municipal watchtowers which have been retained (the Vassily tower and Volga tower) were both positioned on the city's outer defensive walls which afforded them clear views of oncoming enemy forces.

Church of Elijah the Prophet

Within the old defensive limits of the city one can find many other examples of classicism, one important example of which would be the municipal trade rows 'Gostiny Dvor' (Гостиный двор) – these were built in 1813–1818, not long after the clearing of the land upon which they now stand. The style of the building, made noticeable by its many Ionic columns, is similar to that of many Russian trade rows and market halls built in the early to mid-19th century, all over the country. This style is also very complimentary to the 1911-built neoclassical Volkov Theater. At the end of Komsomolskaya Boulevard, upon which the trade rows are located, one finds themselves at 'Volkov Square' (площадь Волкова); where the ring-boulevard makes a slight deviation to the north-eat and carries on towards 'Red Square' (Красная площадь) and the city's Volga embankment. Yaroslavl's Red Square does not have the same etymology as the likewise-named Red Square in Moscow (the name of which stems from the old-Russian for 'beautiful square'), rather in Yaroslavl's case, its Red Square was first so-called in the 1920s, and was officially named in honor of the Soviet Red Guards. There are a number of buildings of historical interest on Red Square, one of which is the three-story building on the square's north side which once housed Yaroslavl's 'aristocrat's meeting house' (Дворянское собрание), and is now the main building for the city's 'Demidov' State University. Furthermore, the square is also the location where the city's main fire department can be found; this is contained within a jugendstil building, built in 1911, and which has a large look-out tower, which even until the 1970s was actively used by the city's fire brigade.

Komsomolskaya Street constitutes the south-western section of Yaroslavl's ring-boulevard

To the east of the boulevard, within the borders of the former defensive earthworks, the architecturally-rich 'nucleus' of the old city is to be found; an area criss-crossed by many narrow, small streets, in the middle of which one of Yaroslavl's most well-recognized architectural monuments is to be found. This is the Church of Elijah the Prophet (Церковь Илии Пророка), which, in the same way as the Epiphany Church, is a very prominent example of the way in which the city developed in the 17th century. Before the completion of the church which currently stands in 1650, a number of other predecessor-churches stood on this spot. From these, the oldest dated back to the foundation of Yaroslavl and the reign of Yaroslav the Wise. The church, with its five onion domes, is a cross and dome style church, the architecture of which is typical of Muscovite designs, is particularly well known for its interior fresco paintings, which, despite a history which has seen great fires and disasters, have been kept in good condition. The frescos on the walls and ceilings were painted by around fifteen experienced artists from Yaroslavl and Kostroma around the year 1680. It is now clear to see that this complex collection of beautiful fresco-work is festooned with many references to the Old Testament. The square, upon which the church, with its clock tower and neighboring chapel are situated, was in the early 19th century, according to the city's urban plan, to be the central square of Yaroslavl and the place upon which markets and national holidays would take place. Nowadays it is an area largely reserved for official events, with the other buildings surrounding the square all belonging to the municipal administration.

In general the streets of the city center are characterized by the noticeable mix of classical and sacral architecture. There are a number of major public and commercial buildings of architectural merit in the center of the city, amongst which are the 1785 'Governmental offices' building' (Здание присутственных мест) and the Vakromeyev House, which today houses the Yaroslavl Seminary for young priests. The Volga embankment is a good example of urban planning in the classicist style; built in the 1840s, this promenade walk has remained a favorite place for residents to take a stroll and relax ever since.

The rebuilt Dormition Cathedral

The southern part of the city center, around the area where the Kotorosl and Volga intersect, is an area abundant in green park-like spaces. Until the 17th century this area was occupied by the wooden Yaroslavl Kremlin and is thus referred to nowadays as 'Wooden Town' (Рубленый город). The Kremlin burnt down in 1658 and was never rebuilt. Close by the 1642 Church of Maria (Успенский собор) stood until its demolition in 1937, however, since 2004 the church was under reconstruction and was finally opened on 12 September 2010 by Patriarch Kirill.

Yaroslavl is the site of the Volkov Theater (built 1750), the oldest theater in Russia, and the Demidovsky Pillar.

The city has many Russian Orthodox churches, one Russian Old Believers church, one Baptist church, one Lutheran church, onemosque and one synagogue.

[edit]Theater and cinema

Yaroslavl's renowned Volkov Theater.

Yaroslavl has three theaters, the most famous of which is the 'Volkov Theater',[43] an institution which since 1911 has been housed in a large neoclassical building in the city's old town. Named after its founder, Fyodor Volkov, the theater was first opened to the public in 1750, this making it Russia's first (by official figures) theatre. The Volkov Theater still has a reputation for being one of Russia's most pioneering dramatic institutes and is considered, amongst the Russian acting community, to be one of the most prestigious playhouses in which to perform. Even though Volkov's original theater troop only performed in Yaroslavl for a few months before then moving to Saint Petersburg (there was no reglar theater company in Yaroslavl again until the beginning of the 19th century), the town is still recognised as the spiritual home of the Russian theater and dramatics. Nowadays the Volkov Theater has two stages and a combined amount of around 1000 seats for spectators. It is considered to be the most famous of the Russian provincial theaters.

Apart from the Volkov Theater, there are a number of other theatres in Yaroslavl, including the State Puppet Theater [44] (founded in 1927), a children's and youth theater (Yaroslavl State Theater for Young Spectators,[45] founded 1984), and the Yaroslavl Chamber Theater[46] (founded 1999). In addition to these theaters, the city also has a philharmonic [47] (founded 1937) and a permanent circus[48](founded 1963).

There are around ten movie theaters in the city, the oldest of which 'Rodina' was built during the Soviet era in 1959.[49] This particular theatre, despite maintaining its Soviet-era exterior, has been comprehensively modernised and is now even able to show 3D films. The city also has a number of large, modern multiplex cinemas, chief amongst which are those of the Russian cinema chains Cinema-Star and Kinomax.

Uncommon for a provincial Russian city, Yaroslavl has a large municipal Planetarium.[50] This was founded in 1948 and was situated, for a long time, in an old church. However, in April 2011, after two years of building works, the city's new 'Valentina Tereshkova' planetarium was opened to the public.[51]

[edit]Global Policy Forum

Main article: Yaroslavl Global Policy Forum
President Dmitry Medvedev converses with Turkish president Abdullah Gül at the 2011 Yaroslavl Global Policy Forum

In recent years Yaroslavl have become well known for the high-level political discourse it has hosted under the auspices of the Yaroslavl Global Policy Forum. This event, organised by the Russian government, and with the backing of President Dmitry Medvedev, has been running since 2009 and represents one of the highest level political-diplomatic forums in the world today. It is the largest political science event organised in Russia, and is held on an annual basis, with a number of foreign officials appearing as participants each year. In the past for example, the French and Italian prime ministers Francois Fillon and Silvio Berlusconi have been guests, as well as Spanish prime minister Jose Zapatero.

In 2011 Turkish president Abdullah Gül was received as a guest participant by the Russian authorities.

Yaroslavl was chosen to host the event due to its thousand year history of being a meeting point for people of all cultures, a significant trading post, and its former status as Russia's second largest city, within which a great number of foreign embassies were situated. The award of this forum to the city coincided with the city's millennium celebrations and thus it is commonly viewed by residents to have been a gift from the Russian president to the city which has helped raise the city's global profile.

In 2011 this event became headline news in a number of countries due to the unfortunate events which led to the deaths of around forty people (players, suppor staff, and air crew) from Yaroslavl's 'Lokomotiv' Ice Hockey team. President Medvedev was, at the time of the crash, attending the conference at Lokomotiv's home stadium 'Arena 2000', and specially postponed a number of important meetings to make sure he could travel to the crash site and meet with crash victims' relatives. Later Russian prime minister Vladimir Putin also arrived in the city to pay his condolences.

[edit]Education

The main building of Yaroslavl's 'Demidov' State University

Yaroslavl has a large number of educational establishments which enclose all three levels of the Russian educational system: primary (ca. 20 establishments), middle (ca. 20 colleges and other secondary schools), and higher (8 state and 2 non-state funded higher educational institutions). In Yaroslavl one can study for both masters' and bachelors' level courses.

Yaroslavl is currently home to the following state higher educational institutions: Yaroslavl 'Demidov' State University, Yaroslavl State Technical University, Ushinskiy Pedagogical University, Yaroslavl State Medical Academy, Yaroslavl State Agricultural Academy, Yaroslavl State Institute for Theatrical Studies, Military School of Finance and Economics, and the Yaroslavl Higher School for Anti-Aircraft and Missile Defence. Amongst the non-state funded institutions for further education in the city is the International Academy for Business and New Technologies (MUBiNT), and also a number of branches from Moscow-based universities.[52] In addition to these establishments, there is also the Yaroslavl Seminary, a large establishment for the training of new Russian Orthodox priests.

By the end of 2008 Yaroslavl had around 187 pre-school teaching and care groups registered within the city, within these there were around 22,700 places which were oversubscribed and thus filled by around 26,000 pre-school aged children. The number of registered children was around 78.7%, or around 0.4 % more than in 2007. At the beginning of the 2008-9 academic year the city had around 100 daytime general educational groups for children within which around 48,100 infants were registered. This figure was around 200 people less than in the previous year. According to the situation in 2010 around 16,000 people are to be found working in Yaroslavl's educational sector.[53]

[edit]Transportation

Yaroslavl is situated at the crossing point of a number of major automotive, rail and riverboat routes. The M8 (Moscow — Yaroslavl — Vologda — Archangelsk) links the city toMoscow and also onwards to the north in the direction of Archangelsk. The city's two banks are connected by one major railway bridge and two bridges designed to carry automotive traffic (The Oktyabrskyj Bridge and Yubilejnyj Bridge). The smaller Kostrol river, on the other hand, is crossed by as many as four bridges for automobiles and one for railway traffic (built in 1896).

[edit]Automotive transport

In the last few years the authorities of Yaroslavl have been acting on the initiative to build a bypass around the city, for this reason the center of the city is now largely free of freight transporters and other larger vehicles transiting through the city. In August 2010 the first piece of this new bypass was opened, it included an interchange, which connects the Yubilejnyj Bridge with the South-West Yaroslavl relief road.[54]

There is one railway bridge across the Volga and two road bridges; the second road bridge across the Volga was ready for use in October 2006.

Yaroslavl Glavny, the city's main station, is a major stop for numerous passenger trains traveling between Moscow and the other regions of Russia each day.

Interurban and regional bus services depart from and arrive at the city's main bus terminal. The services run from this station serve a number of highly-populated areas as well as other villages and smaller towns located within Yaroslavl Oblast such as Pereslavl-Zalesskij,Rybinsk and Uglich. Larger cities served include Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Ufa, Kostroma, Kazan, and Cherepovets.[55]

[edit]Rail transport

There are two major passenger railway stations: Yaroslavl-Glavny and Yaroslavl-Moskovsky. Electric shuttle trains go to Danilov, Rostov,Alexandrov, Nerekhta, and Kostroma. Diesel shuttle trains go to Rybinsk and Ivanovo. Also, many long-distance passenger trains go through Yaroslavl. The city is connected to Moscow by a fast electric train service (sitting places only) called 'Express'.[56]

The directorate of the Northern Railway is located in Yaroslavl on the city's Volga Embankment.

[edit]Air transport

Yaroslavl is home to the Tunoshna airport, which was a former Cold War airbase, the Yaroslavl Levtsovo air base, and the smaller Karachika aerodrome (all of these airfields are located outside of the city limits). Tunoshna airport, which holds the status of an international airport is able to cater for a number of varied aircraft types, including the An-124 «Ruslan» and the Il-96-300. From 1 April 2011 regular air traffic between Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Yaroslavl has been restored thanks to the establishment of the Dexter air company.,[57][58] иные регулярные рейсы отсутствуют.[59] Levtsovo airport is primarily used to cater for aircraft like the An-2, Mi-2, or Mi-8 and is in general rarely used for passenger flights.[60][61] The Yaroslavl Air Club (one of Russia's oldest air clubs and the place from which Valentina Tereshkova first began to attend flight training) is based at Karachika aerodrome.[62]

[edit]Maritime transport

Yaroslavl River Port (1985) — and example of late Soviet modernism

Yaroslavl's river port has an annual import average of around 3.5 million tonnes of freight a year. Climatic conditions allow the port to be used for six months of the year, from May to later October.[63] The river port caters not only for larger river cruise ships which stop off in the city as part of their journey up/down the Volga, but also to a number of regular services which link Yaroslavl with Brejtovo, Tolga, Konstantinovo, Bakarevo, and Novye Chentsy.[64]

[edit]Urban transport

A modernised tram in service in Yaroslavl

The city has a well-developed network of public transportation, including buses, trolley-buses and tram lines. Below there is a table showing how many people used different types of transport in a number of given years (millions of people):

 200720082009
Municipal and private bus services 65.4 64.9 74.5
Trams 24.6 19.7 16.3
Trolleybuses 43.5 35.7 30.4

Bus transport is by far the most popular means of urban transportation used by the residents of Yaroslavl. In fact every day, over 600 different routes are run by a large consortium of both small and large buses and private taxis.

The Yaroslavl tram system is one of the oldest in Russia and has been in existence since 1900. In 2011, this system is currently made up of four routes which run through various parts of the city.[65] Starting in 2004 the number of routes run by trams throughout the city has been steadily reduced, and whilst in 2006 trams could be found in both the historic city center and the Krasnoperekopsky District, the routes serving these areas have now disappeared altogether. While at the beginning of the 21st century, the number of tram cars used by the Yaroslavl tram system stood at around 100, this has now fallen (by 2011) to just 43.

The city's urban transport network also runs a fleet of trolleybuses which run along nine different routes, and have done since the year 1949. Every day, 88 trolleybuses have been in use around Yaroslavl, along with around 227 normal municipal buses.

[edit]Sports

Lokomotiv Yaroslavl players on the ice in 2009

FC Shinnik Yaroslavl is an association football club based in Yaroslavl. It plays in the Russian First Division. The city also hosts the Lokomotiv Yaroslavl ice hockey team, which became the champion of Russia in 1996–1997, 2001–2002, and 2002–2003. All players on the team were killed on 7 September 2011, when the plane in which they were travelling for their first match of the season crashed on take off from Yaroslavl airport.[66]

A new football stadium is to be built in Yaroslavl in readiness for the 2018 FIFA World Cup which Russia will host.

[edit]Notable people

  • Aleksandr Lyapunov, Russian mathematician and physicist, made great contributions to the theory of differential equations.
  • Maksim Tarasov, a pole vaulter, Olympic Champion.
  • Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman in space, was born in a nearby village and went to school in Yaroslavl.
  • Andrei Khomutov, member of the Soviet national hockey team that won countless World Championships and the 1981 Canada Cup.
  • Fyodor Volkov, founder of the first Russian theatre.
  • Nikolai Nekrasov and Leonid Trefolev, poets.
  • Leonid Sobinov, opera singer.
  • Konstantin Ushinsky, founder of Russian pedagogics.
  • Boris Vinogradsky, MD, FACS, surgeon, now working in Cleveland, Ohio, USA, Chairman of the Board of the Russian American Medical Association.
  • Elena Grosheva, Olympic Gymnast (Silver Medalist, Atlanta 1996).
  • Denis Grebeshkov, hockey player for the Nashville Predators.
  • Lyubov Ivanovskaya Russian triathlete.
  • Artemy Troitsky, rock critic.
  • Alexander Vasyunov, former hockey player for the New Jersey Devils, victim of the 2011 Lokomotiv Yaroslavl air disaster.
  • Artem Anisimov, hockey player New York Rangers.
  • Aleksandr Petrov (animator), world famous animator, Oscar winner.

[edit]Twin towns and sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia

Yaroslavl has twin town ties with:

  • United States Burlington, United States
  • Portugal Coimbra, Portugal[67]
  • Vietnam Da Nang, Vietnam
  • Russia Kazan, Russia (Since 2003)
  • United Kingdom Exeter, United Kingdom
  • Germany Hanau, Germany
  • Finland Jyväskylä, Finland
  • Germany Kassel, Germany
  • France Poitiers, France
  • Italy Palermo, Italy

Official site of Yaroslavl Region http://www.adm.yar.ru/

Admission to YSMU, Cost of Study, Education at YSMA, Living conditions, Contacts

 

LIST OF MANDATORY REQUIRED DOCUMENTS FOR FOREIGN APPLICANTS WISHING TO STUDY AS STUDENTS

 

AT YAROSLAVL STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY:

 

1. Completed application (including full name, date of birth, passport number, citizenship, permanent address, contact phone, fax, and e-mail of applicant). Application is free by its form, so applicant can arrange it he/she wishes as ordinary MS Word or *.pdf file. However, it should contain those data that are indicated above and applicant personal signature as well.

 

2. Copy of Passport and notary certified translation of it into Russian that is officially legalized in Russian Embassy in the country of issue (or bear the Apostyle mark).

 

NOTE: The passport of applicant should be valid for the period of not less than 18 moths (1.5 years) from the moment of beginning of education.

 

3. Senior or secondary high school educational certificate, transcripts and supplementary materials that are officially legalized in Russian Embassy in the country of their issue (or bear the Apostyle mark). These documents must be accompanied by notary certified translation into Russian (this may be done in Russian Embassy in the country of educational documents issuing). Supplementary materials must clearly show that applicant during school education time has passed successfully such mandatory subjects like Chemistry, Biology and Physics with the indication of the amount of educational hours and obtained final marks on these subjects. The applicant must have equivalent certification (nostrification) of their national senior or secondary high school educational certificates in Federal Service of Supervision in the Area of Education and Science in Moscow.

 

4. Certificate about successful finalization of Pre-Educational (Preparatory) courses/faculty of medical-biological profile.

 

5. Birth certificate (if available) together with notary certified translation of it into Russian and that is officially legalized in Russian Embassy in the country of issue (or bear the Apostyle mark).

 

6. Physical health examination report together with notary certified translation of it into Russian and that is officially legalized in Russian Embassy in the country of issue (or bear the Apostyle mark).

 

7. HIV test results list together with notary certified translation of it into Russian and that is officially legalized in Russian Embassy in the country of their issue (or bear the Apostyle mark).

 

8. Eight photographs on matte paper (3x4 cm).

 

Pre-submission may be done by post, fax or by e-mail (preferably). Final submission should be done personally, and persons arriving to study must present their original paper documents mentioned above during their personal visit. Our contact coordinates are mentioned below.

 

Deadline for application and document submission is July 15 of each educational year. Educational year starts at September the first each year, so approved applicants must arrive at YSMU strictly before September 1.

 

EDUCATIONAL FEES FOR EDUCATIONAL YEAR 2014-2015 AND OTHER MANDATORY PAYMENTS FOR FOREIGN STUDENTS WISHING TO STUDY AT YAROSLAVL STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY

 

ON THE CONTRACT AGREEMENT BASIS:

 

Faculty or Type of Education

Educational or other fee (payment) per year

Obtained title (document) after successful education

Total duration of education

General Medicine Faculty

89.970,00 Rubles

M.D.

(Medical Doctor Diploma)

6 years

Faculty of Pharmacy

86.720,00 Rubles

Pharmacist

(Diploma of Pharmacist)

5 years

General Internship for Medical Doctors

100.050,00 Rubles

Certificate

1 year

General Internship for Pharmacists

86.825,00

Certificate

1 year

Specialized Internship (Residency)

in Therapy

100.050,00 Rubles

Certificate

3-4 years

Specialized Internship

(Residency)

in Surgery

118.450,00 Rubles

Certificate

3-4 years

Postgraduate Study

108.700,00 Rubles

Ph.D. (C.Sci.)

Candidate of Sciences Diploma

3-4 years

Pre-Education

(Preparatory) Courses of 8 months duration

55.670,00 Rubles

Certificate

8 months

Pre-Education

(Preparatory) Courses of 16 months duration

85.000,00 Rubles

Certificate

16 monts

Mandatory medical insurance fee (per year) = 4000,00 Rubles

Accommodation fee (living in the student hostel in rooms with 2-3 roommates) = 1990,00 Rubles per month

Note: All the payments should be done in Rubles only. Ruble ratio to other international currencies is fluctuating as a result of market changes; please, see actual information at the appropriate sites. Also remember that educational and other fees are subjects to change. Please, do not hesitate to contact us for currently valid & updated fees.

 

MAIN EDUCATIONAL RULES 

students

Education of foreign students is conducted in accordance with plans and syllabuses valid at Yaroslavl State Medical University (these are in strict adherence with Federal State Educational Standards of Russian Federation).

 

After successful graduation from YSMU, foreign students will receive corresponding documents that certify their education or qualification or degree in accordance with the educational system structure, which exists in Russia. Foreign students will obtain the diplomas that give them the right to carry out professional activities in accordance with the level of education, qualification, and law restrictions.

 

 

VISA SUPPORT

visa

Foreign citizens who are wishing to study at Yaroslavl State Medical University will get invitations for the study giving them the right of official registration of his (her) entrance visa for visiting of Russia at the Russian Embassy in their country.

 

To get the visa for Russia, foreign candidates must apply to the Russian Embassy in their native country with the official invitation. The International Educational Division of Yaroslavl State Medical University supplies official invitations to aforementioned category of candidates.

 

After enrollment for education at YSMU, foreign citizens must get their right for temporary residence in Russia that is officially registered in accordance with the immigration laws of Russia. Foreigners are obliged to keep the visa in accordance with regulations for foreign citizens accepted on the territory of Russian Federation.

 

 

INTERNSHIP, SPECIALIZED INTERNSHIP, RESIDENCY 

medic1

Foreign citizens that already have successfully finished their higher medical education can be accepted to general or specialized internship (residency) at Yaroslavl State Medical University clinical facilities. The duration of internship is usually about 2-3 years. On finishing his (her) internship, the person will get the conclusion from Department authorities concerning the results of his (her) work on the individual plan. After that, the person will get the certificate of the specialist.

 

 

POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION

scients

Those graduates (or foreign citizens) who got the diploma and demonstrated their abilities for scientific and research work will have the opportunity to enter post-graduate courses on 30 licensed different specialties.

 

 

 

 

LIST OF MANDATORY REQUIRED DOCUMENTS FOR FOREIGN APPLICANTS FOR INTERNSHIP, RESIDENCY AND POSGRADUATE EDUCATION WHO WISH TO STUDY AT YAROSLAVL STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY:

1. Completed application (including full name, date of birth, passport number, citizenship, permanent address, contact phone, fax, and e-mail of applicant). Application is free by its form, so applicant can arrange it he/she wishes as ordinary MS Word or *.pdf file. However, it should contain those data that are indicated above and applicant personal signature as well.

2. Copy of Passport and notary certified translation of it into Russian that is officially legalized in Russian Embassy in the country of issue (or bear the Apostyle mark). NOTE: The passport of applicant should be valid for the period of not less than 18 moths (1.5 years) from the moment of beginning of education.

3. Academic or University Medical diploma, transcripts and supplementary materials. If these documents are issued outside the Russian Federation aforementioned documents must be officially legalized in Russian Embassy in the country of their issue (or bear the Apostyle mark). These documents must be accompanied by notary certified translation into Russian. Additionally, if aforementioned documents are issued in other country than Russian Federation, these documents should pass the procedure of equivalent certification (nostrification) in Federal Service of Supervision in the Area of Education and Science in Moscow.

4. Physical health examination report together with notary certified translation of it into Russian and that is officially legalized in Russian Embassy in the country of issue (or bear the Apostyle mark).

5. HIV test results list together with notary certified translation of it into Russian and that is officially legalized in Russian Embassy in the country of their issue (or bear the Apostyle mark).

6. Eight photographs on matte paper (3x4 cm).

Pre-submission may be done by post, fax or by e-mail (preferably). Final submission should be done personally, and persons arriving to study must present their original paper documents mentioned above during their personal visit. Our contact coordinates are mentioned below.

Deadline for application and document submission for internship and residency course applicants is August 15 of each educational year. Education starts at October 15 of each year, so approved applicants must arrive at YSMU strictly before October 15.

Deadline for application and document submission for post-graduate study is July 30 of each educational year. Education starts at September the first of each year, so approved applicants must arrive at YSMU strictly before September 1.

 

LIVING CONDITIONS AND ACCOMMODATION 

students2

Foreign pre-educational course attendees, students, interns, residency course attendees, and postgraduates are provided by places for living at the comfortable student hostels. Accommodation fee is not included in the educational fee and must be paid separately. In 2014-2015 academic educational year, accommodation fee is 1990 Rubles per month for one place for living in the room. Rooms are given for 2-3 persons. The following services are provided: dining hall, kitchens, showers, bars, sport gyms, medical room, barber shop, stores, music clubs, etc.

 

 

Yaroslavl State Medical University (YSMU) is an important one among other best medical iniversities in Russia. For more than 70 years, high-quality specialists are trained here. The Pre-Educational Courses were organized here initially in 1993. The work of these courses (now faculty) is based on the activity and contribution of different departments. The main aims of the courses are to manage and to coordinate the process of study and professional orientation of foreign attendees and students in terms of their knowledge improvement.

 

 

After eight (or sixteen, in accordance with your choice) months of education, the attendees are obtaining corresponding certificate and those necessary levels of knowledge that they will need further in order to study successfully fresh students of university.

 

 

 

In addition to the intensive course of Russian language, the attendees are studying Biology, Basic Human Anatomy, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics, etc. This is the unique program which includes all needed knowledge for study in our university. The staff of the courses consists of persons who are working as regular staff-members in Yaroslavl State Medical University. The process of education is based on the Federal State Standards of High Education. Also the Faculty of Middle-Range Professional Education and Pre-Education Study can offer you only Russian Language course, as well as we can offer you different individually constructed educational programs in accordance with you wishes and needs.

 

General information about Pre-Educational Courses

1. Foreigners who are not speaking Russian are initially enrolled at Pre-Educational Courses at YSMU, where they study Russian language. For the additional payment foreigners are invited to enter courses of Biology, Physics, Chemistry and other subjects, depending on specialty they want to get.

2. At the end of educational year, there are final tests. Those who passed these tests successfully will get official certificates that give them the right to study at Yaroslavl State Medical University or in other educational institutions depending on specialty.

3. Pre-educational courses of YSMU for foreigners are licensed by Russian Ministry of Health Care and the corresponding certificate gives the right to enter after admissions tests to the following faculties: medical faculties, faculty of pharmacy, postgraduate training.

4. Foreigners who did not pass the examinations as well as those who did not show sufficient knowledge must return home to their native country at their own risks and expenses.

 

DOCUMENTS THAT ARE REQUIRED TO CONSIDER YOUR SUBMISSION

TO THE PRE-EDUCATIONAL (PREPARATORY) COURSES

AT YAROSLAVL STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY:

1. Completed application (including full name, date of birth, passport number, citizenship, permanent address, contact phone, fax, and e-mail of applicant). Application is free by its form, so applicant can arrange it he/she wishes as ordinary MS Word or *.pdf file. However, it should contain those data that are indicated above and applicant personal signature as well.

2. Copy of Passport and notary certified translation of it into Russian that is officially legalized in Russian Embassy in the country of issue (or bear the Apostyle mark).

NOTE: The passport of applicant should be valid for the period of not less than 18 moths (1.5 years) from the moment of beginning of education.

3. Documents about applicant previous school education: school certificate, transcripts and supplementary materials (if available). If these materials are in other language than Russian, these documents should be officially legalized in the country of their issue. In addition, these documents should also be accompanied by officially and notary certified translations into Russian language. Both of these procedures should be done in the Russian Embassy of applicant native country. Supplementary materials must clearly show that applicant during school education time has passed successfully such mandatory subjects like Chemistry, Biology and Physics with the indication of the amount of educational hours and obtained final marks on these subjects.

4. Certificate of birth (if available) with its officially certified translation into Russian language (translation could be done at the Russian Embassy at the native country of applicant).

5. Physical health examination report together with its officially certified translation into Russian language (translation could be done at the Russian Embassy at the native country of applicant).

6. HIV test results together with its officially certified translation into Russian language (translation could be done at the Russian Embassy at the native country of applicant).

7. Eight photographs (3x4 cm) on matte paper.

Period of education on Pre-Educational faculty is 8 or 16 months. Pre-submission may be done by post, fax or by e-mail (preferably). Final submission should be done personally, and persons arriving to study must present their original paper documents mentioned above during their personal visit. Our contact coordinates are mentioned below.

Deadline for application and document submission is October 15 of each educational year (for 8 months course) or February 15 of each educational year (for 16 months course). Education starts at December the first of each year (for 8 months course) or at April the first of each year (for 16 months course), so approved applicants must arrive at YSMU strictly before December 1 (for 8 months course) or April 1 (for 16 months course) of each educational year.

 

INTERNET ACCESS

For the last decades, the information technologies are actively developing in the Yaroslavl State Medical University (YSMU). First of all, this is necessary for the improvement of education, for educational and scientific research work as well. These informational technologies are granting some principally new services to students and employees of the university. Now there is available the Informatics Center of Yaroslavl State Medical University.

The university has significant experience in the area of Internet activity. YSMU has its own local network with data transmission speed of up to 1 Gb/s. The main building of university is connected to this network via fiber-optical channels and via radio-modem communication with data transmission speed up to 100 Mb/s. The theoretical building No. 5 (this includes 6 different departments) and the Municipal Emergency Hospital of N.V. Solovyev (this includes 7 different departments) are also permanently connected to the international computer network with data transmission speed of up to 100 Mb/s. There are also available free Wi-Fi areas at YSMU. The university supports its own WWW-server (http://www.yma.ac.ru).

 

FUNDAMENTAL LIBRARY

The main scientific library of Yaroslavl State Medical University (YSMU) has been functioning since 1944. Nowadays the number of books is more than 500000. There are available more than 300000 items of scientific literature, more than 150000 items of educational literature (textbooks), more than 25000 items of foreign literature and 25000 items of fiction literature items. Now, there are about 8000 readers, most of them (approximately 4500) are students. The library provides the service to more than 20000 of readers per year.

        From 1997, the Internet classes are working at the library for students and for the staff-members. From 1994, the fundamental library is providing free access to the worldwide electronic medical databases: The National Medical Library of USA, State Central Scientific Medical Library (Russia), The Electronic Library of Russian Fundamental Research Fund, etc. Nowadays, the fundamental library of YSMU is providing the electronic access to those materials that are located in more than 12 largest libraries.

        From 2000, the library is an active participant of the project for creating the Unified library system of the city, and this project will consolidate all libraries of Yaroslavl region into the network system with easy and simple electronic access to aforementioned library materials and databases. In YSMU fundamental library, several computer classes are working on the principles of free and opened access. Aforementioned classes are very popular and highly-demanded points of interest both for university employees and students. This is an essential part of university educational and scientific strategy. Since 1997, the librarians and instructors are providing free consultations and education courses how to use modern informational databases and citation systems. This system is allowing the access to the integrated international databases, like Medline (since 1966), Cancerlit (since 1980), and AIDSline (since 1980). The university  provides the access to full electronic versions of the journals issued by Oxford University Press, SCIRO Publishing, International Academic Publisher, Springer, Walter de Gruyter and Co., The Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd, The Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, etc. Also since 1999, the university is the participant of the project declared by publishing house Springer.

        The total number of items in electronic catalogue is equal to approximately 32000 items. It was also created the electronic library of YSMU. This is a part of university network and it is freely accessible at the address  http://lib.yar.ru.

 

.

General Information About Yaroslavl State Medical University

pavlov02

 

Professor Alexei Vladimirovich Pavlov

(M.D., Ph.D., D.Sc.)

 

Rector of Yaroslavl State Medical University

logoEN

 

GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT YAROSLAVL STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY

Yaroslavl State Medical University (YSMU) was founded in 1944.  And now it has more than half-a-century history. At present, YSMU is the big regional center of excellent quality medical education and bio-medical research. It is also the leader in medical training and post-graduation education, retraining of specialists of practical healthcare, medicine, pharmacy, and high skilled academic staff for the central regions of Russia. 

YSMU

There are several faculties in YSMU, among most important are: 

 

-General Medicine Faculty,

-Pediatric Faculty,

-Pharmacy Faculty,

-Stomatology Faculty,

-Faculty of Middle-Range Professional Education and Pre-Education Study

-Faculty of Post-Diploma Professional Education and Education of Personnel of Highest Qualification,

-Faculty of Additional Professional Education.

 

            In addition, there is the Institute of Post-Diploma Education of YSMU.

 

At present about 4500 students are studying at YSMU (including foreign students). Medical training and education are conducted by 57 departments that have all the necessary equipment to provide high quality education according to available Russian and international modern standards. At YSMU, there are prepared highly qualified specialists of all local hospitals and medical institutions and professionals from other regions of Russia.

 

            Today the staff of YSMU includes approximately 1200 employees. The academic staff of YSMU consists of more than 500 persons (instructors). Among them 375 persons have the M.D. & Ph.D. titles (candidates of sciences, assistant and associate professors) there are more than 100 doctors of sciences and full professors. Many of them are members of different Russian and foreign international societies and are well-known scientists and clinicians not only in Russia but all over the world.

 

Modern informational technologies are actively developing in YSMU. All departments have permanent Internet access. These resources are opened both for students and for faculty members, as well as there are special courses for those who wish to extend and improve their qualification in modern informational technologies. There is a big library in YSMU with two reading halls and facilities that are equipped in terms of use data bases and Internet resources.

 

            YSMU have good social facilities and structure (including five hostels, sport centers, student healthcare center, Volga River summer camp, and the garden of medical plants).

 

Education of foreign students both on governmental (budget) and individual (contract) basis was started in YSMU since 1992, now YSMU has twenty-year unique experience in this area. Several international programs are available for foreign students. It is important that all programs are strictly adhere to the Federal State Educational Standards of Russian Federation, and are based on deep routed traditions of qualified Russian education.

 

Now many foreign students are getting their education at YSMU. They represent more than 40 countries (including citizens from Syria, Palestine, Jordan, Morocco, Greece, Tunis, Namibia, Kenya, Zambia, India, etc.).

 

Therefore, YSMU is a big and well-known educational, research and scientific center in the fields of fundamental sciences, clinical medicine and pharmacy. YSMU is recognized by WHO World Directory of Medical Schools. Professionals in Yaroslavl State Medical University are supporting new progressive methods and activities, and keep their reach traditions in the area of qualified education and scientific research at the same time.

 

 

SEVERAL GENERAL FACTS ABOUT YAROSLAVL

 

Yaroslavl1

 

Yaroslavl is situated in 280 km (or 175 miles) northern-western from Moscow, the capital city of Russia. It is possible to get to Yaroslavl by car, by bus, by train and by airplane (in example, usually it takes 4 hours to get from Moscow to Yaroslavl by bus or train). Yaroslavl was found about 1000 years ago. Yaroslavl population is about 700,000. People with different confessions and religions (Catholicism, Protestantism, Christianity, Islam and others) are living here, so everyone could find their churches and chapels in our city. The weather and the climate in Yaroslavl are not differed much from Moscow. Averaged temperature in summer is +28ºC (83ºF), in winter averaged temperature is -15ºC (5ºF).

.

Yaroslavl2

Yaroslavl is a big cultural center of Russia. Many tourist routes lay through Yaroslavl. There are many cultural sites in Yaroslavl, these are: museums, theatres, movie theatres, parks, Volga embankment. Also you can find here many places of interest: restaurants, cafes, sport complexes, swimming pools, fitness centers, and many other places to have the good rest and relaxation. It is accepted that Yaroslavl is the most beautiful city on the Volga River, and that is why it belongs to the complex of most ancient and beautiful cities (also known as Golden Ring of Russia.).

 

Admission to YSMA, Cost of Study, Education at YSMA, Living conditions, Contacts - OLD (2)

LIST OF MANDATORY REQUIRED DOCUMENTS

FOR FOREIGN APPLICANTS WISHING TO STUDY AS STUDENTS AT YAROSLAVL STATE MEDICAL ACADEMY:

1. Completed application (including full name, date of birth, passport number, citizenship, permanent address, contact phone, fax, and e-mail of applicant).

2. Copy of Passport and notary certified translation of it into Russian that is officially legalized in Russian Embassy in the country of issue (or bear the Apostyle mark).

NOTE: The passport of applicant should be valid for the period of not less than 18 moths (1.5 years) from the moment of beginning of education.

3. Senior or secondary high school educational certificate, transcripts and supplementary materials that are officially legalized in Russian Embassy in the country of their issue (or bear the Apostyle mark). These documents must be accompanied by notary certified translation into Russian (this may be done in Russian Embassy in the country of educational documents issuing). Supplementary materials must clearly show that applicant during school education time has passed successfully such mandatory subjects like Chemistry, Biology and Physics with the indication of the amount of educational hours and obtained final marks on these subjects. The applicant must have equivalent certification (nostrification) of their national senior or secondary high school educational certificates in Federal Service of Supervision in the Area of Education and Science in Moscow. This service is provided by the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution “Glavexpertcenter”. Contact information: Russia, Moscow, Ordjonikidze str., 11, bld. 9, suit 13, zip: 115419 “Glavexpertcentr”. Phones: (495) 649-80-72; (495); (495) 665-00-15. Fax: (495) 665-00-15. Web-site: www.glavex.ru. Electronic request web-page form: http://glavex.ru/ru/contact.

4. Birth certificate (if available) together with notary certified translation of it into Russian and that is officially legalized in Russian Embassy in the country of issue (or bear the Apostyle mark).

5. Physical health examination report together with notary certified translation of it into Russian and that is officially legalized in Russian Embassy in the country of issue (or bear the Apostyle mark).

6. HIV test results list together with notary certified translation of it into Russian and that is officially legalized in Russian Embassy in the country of their issue (or bear the Apostyle mark).

7. Eight photographs on matte paper (3x4 cm).

Persons arriving to study must present their original documents personally.

            Pre-submission may be done by post, fax or by e-mail (preferably). Final submission should be done personally, and persons arriving to study must present their original paper documents mentioned above during their personal visit. Our contact coordinates are mentioned below. Deadline for application and document submission is July 15 of each educational year. Educational year starts at September the first each year, so approved applicants must arrive at YSMA strictly before September 1.

 

EDUCATIONAL FEES FOR EDUCATIONAL YEAR 2013-2014 AND OTHER MANDATORY PAYMENTS FOR INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS WISHING TO STUDY AT YAROSLAVL STATE MEDICAL ACADEMY

 

ON THE CONTRACT BASIS:

 

Faculty or Type of Education

Educational or other fee (payment) per year

Obtained title (document) after successful education

Total duration of education

General Medicine Faculty

89.970,00 Rubles

(approximately 2800 US $)*

M.D.

(Medical Doctor Diploma)

6 years

Pediatric Faculty

86.720,00 Rubles (approximately 2700 US $)*

M.D.

(Medical Doctor Diploma)

6 years

Faculty of Pharmacy

(full-time education)

86.720,00 Rubles (approximately 2700 US $)*

Pharmacist

(Diploma of Pharmacist)

5 years

General Internship for Medical Doctors

100.050,00 Rubles (approximately 3040 US $)*

Certificate

1 year

General Internship for Pharmacists

86.825,00

(approximately 2700 US $)*

Certificate

1 year

Specialized Internship (Residency)

in Therapy

100.050,00 Rubles (approximately 3040 US $)*

Certificate

3-4 years

Specialized Internship

(Residency)

in Surgery

118.450,00 Rubles (approximately 3600 US $)*

Certificate

3-4 years

Postgraduate Study

118.450,00 Rubles (approximately 3600 US $)*

Ph.D. (C.Sci.)

Candidate of Sciences Diploma

3-4 years

Pre-Education

(Preparatory) Courses

51.690,00 Rubles (approximately 1570 US $)*

Certificate

1 year

Mandatory medical insurance fee (per year) = 4000,00 Rubles

(approximately 125 US $)*

Accommodation fee (living in the student hostel in rooms with 2-3 roommates) = 1990,00 Rubles per month (approximately 60 US $)*

Note: Prices in US $ (in brackets and marked by *) are given for approximate evaluation purpose, because the payment should be done in Rubles only, whereas Ruble\US $ ratio is fluctuating as a result of market changes. Also remember that educational and other fees are subjects to change, please contact us for currently valid & updated fees.

 MAIN EDUCATIONAL RULES 

students

Education of foreign students is conducted in accordance with plans and syllabuses valid at Yaroslavl State Medical Academy (these are in strict adherence with State Educational Standards of Russian Federation).

 

After successful graduation from YSMA, foreign students will receive corresponding documents that certify their education or qualification or degree in accordance with the educational system structure, which exists in Russia. Foreign students will obtain the diplomas that give them the right to carry out professional activities in accordance with the level of education, qualification, and law restrictions.

 

 

VISA SUPPORT

visa

Foreign citizens who are wishing to study at Yaroslavl State Medical Academy will get invitations for the study giving them the right of official registration of his (her) entrance visa for Russia at the Russian Embassy in their country.

 

To get the visa for Russia, foreign candidates must apply to the Russian Embassy in their native country with the official invitation. The International Educational Division of Yaroslavl State Medical Academy supplies official invitations to aforementioned category of candidates.

 

After enrollment for education at YSMA, foreign citizens must get their right for temporary residence in Russia that is officially registered in accordance with the immigration laws of Russia. Foreigners are obliged to keep the visa in accordance with regulations for foreign citizens accepted on the territory of Russian Federation.

 

 

INTERNSHIP, SPECIALIZED INTERNSHIP, RESIDENCY 

medic1Foreign citizens that already have successfully finished their higher medical education can be accepted to general or specialized internship (residency) at Yaroslavl State Medical Academy clinical facilities. The duration of internship is usually about 2-3 years. On finishing his (her) internship, the person will get the conclusion from Department authorities concerning the results of his (her) work on the individual plan. After that, the person will get the certificate of the specialist.

 

POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION

scientsThose graduates (or foreign citizens) who got the diploma and demonstrated their abilities for scientific and research work will have the opportunity to enter post-graduate courses on 26 different specialties.

 

 

 

LIST OF MANDATORY REQUIRED DOCUMENTS FOR INTERNATIONAL APPLICANTS FOR INTERNSHIP, RESIDENCY AND POSGRADUATE EDUCATION WHO WISH TO STUDY AT YAROSLAVL STATE MEDICAL ACADEMY:

1. Completed application (including full name, date of birth, passport number, citizenship, permanent address, contact phone, fax, and e-mail of applicant).

2. Copy of Passport and notary certified translation of it into Russian that is officially legalized in Russian Embassy in the country of issue (or bear the Apostyle mark).

NOTE: The passport of applicant should be valid for the period of not less than 18 moths (1.5 years) from the moment of beginning of education.

3. Academic or University Medical diploma, transcripts and supplementary materials. If these documents are issued outside the Russian Federation aforementioned documents must be officially legalized in Russian Embassy in the country of their issue (or bear the Apostyle mark). These documents must be accompanied by notary certified translation into Russian. Additionally, if aforementioned documents are issued in other country than Russian Federation, these documents should pass the procedure of equivalent certification (nostrification) in Federal Service of Supervision in the Area of Education and Science in Moscow. This service is provided by the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution “Glavexpertcenter”. Contact information: Russia, Moscow, Ordjonikidze str., 11, bld. 9, suit 13, zip: 115419 “Glavexpertcentr”. Phones: (495) 649-80-72; (495); (495) 665-00-15. Fax (495) 665-00-15. Web-site: www.glavex.ru. Electronic request web-page form: http://glavex.ru/ru/contact.

4. Physical health examination report together with notary certified translation of it into Russian and that is officially legalized in Russian Embassy in the country of issue (or bear the Apostyle mark).

5. HIV test results list together with notary certified translation of it into Russian and that is officially legalized in Russian Embassy in the country of their issue (or bear the Apostyle mark).

6. Eight photographs on matte paper (3x4 cm).

Pre-submission may be done by post, fax or by e-mail (preferably). Final submission should be done personally, and persons arriving to study must present their original paper documents mentioned above during their personal visit. Our contact coordinates are mentioned below. Deadline for application and document submission is July 15 of each educational year. Education starts at September the first each year, so approved applicants must arrive at YSMA strictly before September 1.

 

LIVING CONDITIONS AND ACCOMMODATION 

students2Foreign students, interns, residency courses attendees, and postgraduates are provided with places for living at the comfortable student hostels. Accommodation fee is not included in the educational fee and must be paid separately. In 2013-2014 academic educational year, accommodation fee is 1990 Rubles per month (approximately 60 US $ per year) for one place for living in the room. Rooms are given for 2-3 persons. The following services are provided: dining hall, kitchens, showers, bars, sport gyms, medical room, barber shop, stores, music clubs, etc.

 

Yaroslavl State Medical Academy (YSMA) is an important one among other best medical academies in Russia. For more than 50 years, high-quality specialists are trained here.

The Pre-Educational Courses were organized here in 1993. The work of these courses is based on the activity and contribution of different departments. The main aims of the courses are to manage and to coordinate the process of study and professional orientation of foreign attendees and students in terms of their knowledge improvement.

After eight months of education, the attendees are obtaining corresponding certificate and those necessary levels of knowledge that they will need further in order to study successfully at the 1-st course of academy being the students. 

In addition to the intensive course of Russian language, the attendees are studying Biology, Basic Human Anatomy, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics, etc. This is the unique program which includes all needed knowledge for study in our academy. The staff of the courses consists of persons who are working as regular staff-members in Yaroslavl State Medical Academy. The process of education is based on the State and Government Standards of High Education. Also the Preparatory Division can offer you only Russian Language course, as well as we can offer you different individually constructed educational programs in accordance with you wishes and needs.

General information about Pre-Educational Courses

1. Foreigners who are not speaking Russian are initially enrolled at Pre-Educational Courses at YSMA, where they study Russian language. For the additional payment foreigners are invited to enter courses of Biology, Physics, Chemistry and other subjects, depending on specialty they want to get.

2. At the end of educational year, there are final tests. Those who passed these tests successfully will get official certificates that give them the right to study at Yaroslavl State Medical Academy or in other educational institutions depending on specialty.

3. Pre-educational courses of YSMA for foreigners are licensed by Russian Ministry of Health Care and Social Development and the corresponding certificate gives the right to enter after admissions tests to the following faculties: medical faculties, faculty of pharmacy, postgraduate training.

4. Foreigners who did not pass the examinations as well as those who did not show sufficient knowledge must return home to their native country at their own expenses.

 

Documents that are required to consider your submission

to the Preparatory Courses

1. Completed application (including full name, date of birth, passport number, citizenship, permanent address, contact phone, fax, and e-mail of applicant). Application is free by its form, so applicant can arrange it he/she wishes as ordinary MS Word or *.pdf file. However, it should contain those data that are indicated above and applicant personal signature as well.

2. Copy of Passport and notary certified translation of it into Russian that is officially legalized in Russian Embassy in the country of issue (or bear the Apostyle mark).

NOTE: The passport of applicant should be valid for the period of not less than 18 moths (1.5 years) from the moment of beginning of education.

3. Documents about applicant previous school education: school certificate, transcripts and supplementary materials (if available). If these materials are in other language than Russian, these documents should be officially legalized in the country of their issue. In addition, these documents should also be accompanied by officially and notary certified translations into Russian language. Both of these procedures should be done in the Russian Embassy of applicant native country. Supplementary materials must clearly show that applicant during school education time has passed successfully such mandatory subjects like Chemistry, Biology and Physics with the indication of the amount of educational hours and obtained final marks on these subjects.

4. Certificate of birth (if available) with its officially certified translation into Russian language (translation could be done at the Russian Embassy at the native country of applicant).

5. Physical health examination report together with its officially certified translation into Russian language (translation could be done at the Russian Embassy at the native country of applicant).

6. HIV test results together with its officially certified translation into Russian language (translation could be done at the Russian Embassy at the native country of applicant).

7. Eight photographs (3x4 cm) on matte paper.

Period of education on Pre-Educational faculty is 8-18 months. Pre-submission may be done by post, fax or by e-mail (preferably). Final submission should be done personally, and persons arriving to study must present their original paper documents mentioned above during their personal visit. Our contact coordinates are mentioned below. Deadline for application and document submission is September 15 of each educational year. Education starts at November the first each year, so approved applicants must arrive at YSMA strictly before November 1 of each educational year.

 

Internet Access

For the last decade, the information technologies are actively developing in the Yaroslavl State Medical Academy (YSMA). First of all, this is necessary for the improvement of education, for educational and scientific research work as well. These informational technologies are granting some principally new services to students and employees of the academy. Now there is exist the Informatics Center of Yaroslavl State Medical Academy.

The academy has significant experience in the area of Internet activity. YSMA has its own local network with data transmission speed up to 1 Gb/s. The main building of academy is connected to this network via fiber-optical channels and via radio-modem communication with data transmission speed up to 100 Mb/s. The theoretical building No. 5 (this is including 6 different departments) and the Municipal Emergency Hospital of N.V. Solovyev (this includes 7 different departments) are also permanently connected to the international computer network with data transmission speed of up to 100 Mb/s. There are also available Wi-Fi areas at YSMA. The academy supports its own WWW-server ( http://www.yma.ac.ru).

FUNDAMENTAL LIBRARY

The main scientific library of Yaroslavl State Medical Academy (YSMA) has been functioning since 1944. Nowadays the number of books is more than 510000. There are available more than 250000 items of scientific literature, more than 200000 items of educational literature (textbooks), more than 40000 items of foreign literature. Now, there are about 6000 readers, most of them (approximately 3500) are students. The library provides the service to more than 85000 of reader requests per year. 
        From 1997, the Internet classes are working at the library for students and for the staff-members. From 1994, the fundamental library is providing free access to the worldwide electronic medical databases: The National Medical Library of USA, State Central Scientific Medical Library (Russia), The Electronic Library of Russian Fundamental Research Fund, etc. Nowadays, the fundamental library of YSMA is providing the electronic access to those materials that are located in more than 12 largest libraries.

        From 2000, the library is an active participant of the project for creating the Unified library system of the city, and this project will consolidate all libraries of Yaroslavl region into the network system with easy and simple electronic access to aforementioned library materials and databases. In YSMA fundamental library, several computer classes are working on the principles of free and opened access. Aforementioned classes are very popular and highly-demanded points of interest both for academy employees and students of academy. This is an essential part of academy educational and scientific strategy. Since 1997, the librarians and instructors are providing free consultations and education courses how to use modern informational databases and citation systems. This system is allowing the access to the integrated international databases, like Medline (since 1966), Cancerlit (since 1980), and AIDSline (since 1980). The academy provides the access to full electronic versions of the journals issued by Oxford University Press, SCIRO Publishing, International Academic Publisher, Springer, Walter de Gruyter and Co., The Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd, The Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, etc. Also since 1999, the academy is the participant of the project declared by publishing house Springer.

It was also created the electronic library of YSMA. This is a part of academic network and it is freely accessible at the address http://lib.yar.ru.

 

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Контакты
(Приемная комиссия)

Адрес:
150054 Россия, г. Ярославль, ул. Чкалова, 6

Телефоны:

прием на 1 курс (специалитет, СПО), ординатура, восстановление и перевод:
+7(930)100-01-07 (многоканальный),
прием в аспирантуру:
+7(930)100-01-07 (доб. 701)

Электронная почта:
ysmupriem@mail.ru

Председатель приёмной комиссии ректор ЯГМУ профессор Алексей Владимирович Павлов 

Электронная почта:   rector@ysmu.ru

Ответственный секретарь приёмной комиссии доцент Потапов Максим Петрович 

Электронная почта:   ysmupriem@mail.ru

Время работы приемной комиссии на период приемной кампании с 20 июня 2020 г.:

 

Пн-Пт: с 10.00 до 16.00

Сб: с 9.00 до 13.00

Вс: нет приема